The doctrine of light (optics) occupies among other branches of physics special place. If electrodynamics and atomic physics developed as part of the exact Sciences, the basic concept of light (with the help of view we get about 90% of the information about the macrocosm) man made at the dawn of “civilization. The rectilinear propagation of light in free space and the formation of shadows from opaque obstacles in ancient times gave rise to the presentation of light — flow rectilinearly moving particles. Much later, in the seventeenth century, more subtle observations also revealed the wave properties of light (interference, diffraction). In the seventies of the nineteenth century Maxwell in electrodynamics tied optics with electromagnetism, putting in to the unified nature of light and predicted electromagnetic waves.
A detailed study of the interaction of light with matter and radiation processes showed that the wave concept is insufficient for understanding these phenomena, and ultimately led to fundamental changes in our views on the nature of light and elementary particles that interact with light, appeared and quickly developed quantum mechanics, where the apparent contradiction between the wave and corpuscular properties of light (and matter) found Continue reading